Below is the online edition of In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood, by Dr. Although textbooks usually mention only about a dozen plates, the theory now requires more than 100, most of them small. Any theory can appear to explain facts if the theory has enough variables (adjustable parameters). Sometimes, the popular press has announced the discovery of craters that might explain the extinction of dinosaurs. The pressure drop in the subterranean chamber began immediately below the rupture and then propagated horizontally through the liquid shell at the speed of sound in water, which is only about a third of the speed of sound in rock. [ The Fountains of the Great Deep References and Notes ] References and Notes 1. This number has grown as followers of the theory have applied it to specific regions of the earth and found problems with the theory. As more was learned about planetary motion, more epicycles were required to protect Ptolemy’s geocentric theory. and could offer a glimpse of how minerals such as gold, copper and iron are leached out of the entrails of the Earth and released into the oceans. [See Michel Bouchon and Martin Valle, “Observation of Long Supershear Rupture during the Magnitude 8.1 Kunlunshan Earthquake,” , Vol. 824–826.] As the flood began, the crack’s two ends circumscribed the globe and produced the 46,000-mile rupture in about 2 hours.Consequently, temperatures did not rise as much as one might expect.Based on the Widmansttten patterns found in iron meteorites (which came from crushed subterranean pillars), temperatures exceeded 1,300F. Baron Cagniard de la Tour and most researchers before 2005 thought supercritical fluids (SCFs) were gases.Then, if you touch the nose of your unsuspecting sister, a spark will jump between your finger and her nose; energy is released instantly, much to your sister’s surprise.As the temperature of the subterranean water increased, its ionization increased.
Because the liquid droplets in supercritical fluids are so small, these intermolecular forces are huge. “When the solid is precipitated by suddenly reducing the pressure, it is crystalline, and may be brought down as a ‘snow’ in the gas, or on the glass as a ‘frost,’ but it is always easily redissolved by the gas on increasing the pressure.” , Vol. Also, the increasing load of sediments, especially from crushed pillars, slowed the flow.Immediately before the rupture, the total surface area of all liquid bundles in the SCW was about a trillion times greater than before tidal heating began.(Furthermore, the polar nature of water molecules gives liquid water unusually high surface energy.) Therefore, as tidal pumping added energy to the SCW, most of that energy (1) ionized both the liquid and vapor, and (2) increased the total surface area of the liquid bundles by further fragmenting the microscopic liquid particles.These shimmering droplets account for many amazing properties of SCFs. With water, he could not reach the critical point, because of its high temperature and pressure—705F (374C) and 3,200 psi (220.6 bars).Also, his glass tubes were attacked by the high solubility of water as it approached the critical point. Most of us were taught as children that pure substances can be one of three forms: a solid, liquid, or gas.This explains why no amount of pressure can liquefy all the water vapor. Philippe Wernet et al., “Spectroscopic Characterization of Microscopic Hydrogen-Bonding Disparities in Supercritical Water,” , Vol. [See “Energy in the Subterranean Water” on pages 615–620 and "The Origin of Earth’s Radioactivity" on pages 387–441.] What is surface energy?Energy is required to create a surface, because chemical bonds must be broken.These problems do not overthrow the theory until a new theory comes along that can explain all that the old theory did (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1970).] Plate tectonics is becoming more complex as new information is learned, a sign that “epicycles” are with us again. Prevot, “Evidence Suggesting Extremely Rapid Field Variations during a Geomagnetic Reversal,” , Vol. For example, the acidity of annual layers could be reconciled with historical records of volcanic eruptions within the past millenium only because each layer was dated back to near the correct year of deposition. Another data point that could be added to Dodwell’s long list is the Great Pyramid of Egypt. However, if you place red dots everywhere an earthquake occurs, many dots will form a continuous red line along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge.This has caused a growing number of international scientists to announce that “Any successful account of geomagnetism must explain what caused the pole reversals at various times in history. No one has developed an explanation of why the sign reversals take place. For it to line up with today’s cardinal directions, it would need to be rotated about 3 degrees counterclockwise. That line goes under the northwest coast of North America.The apparently random reversals of the earth’s dipolar field have remained inscrutable.” October 1961, pp. This paper is enlightening, because it shows some understanding of these magnetic anomalies (and even localized reversals) before the plate-tectonic interpretation was given to the anomalies. The pyramid’s builders were much too skilled to have made such a large error. So, the ridge is hidden under California, western Canada, and Alaska. The more ionized the water, the easier it is for water to conduct an electrical current.Once the plate-tectonic interpretation was given, few considered these more likely mechanisms. The North American plate probably overrode that segment of the ridge at the end of the continental-drift phase. Energy is required to pull positive and negative charged particles apart, but that energy is recovered if those charges recombine, as positive and negative charges always try to do.