On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, and he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army.
On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, and on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate.
By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed "Atlantica-Pacifica," which was shortened to "Atlanta".
During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies.
During the 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the Civil Rights Movement, with Dr.In the 1950s, the city's newly constructed highway system allowed middle class Atlantans the ability to relocate to the suburbs.As a result, the city began to make up an ever-smaller proportion of the metropolitan area's population.In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia.The region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology (now Georgia Tech) and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and successfully promoted the New South's development to the world.Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph David Abernathy, and many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership.In the decades following, the city earned a reputation as "too busy to hate" for the relatively progressive views of its citizens and leaders compared to other cities in the "Deep South".During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being by far the world's busiest airport since 1998.The initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would then be linked to Savannah.